The east span of the San FranciscoâOakland Bay Bridge also suffered damage from the quake when a 50-foot (15-m) section of the upper deck collapsed onto the lower deck; the damaged section was repaired within a month of the earthquake. Historically a focal point of the West Coast blues and jazz scenes, Oakland is also home to musicians representing such genres as rhythm and blues, gospel, funk, punk, heavy metal, Rap/Gangsta rap, and hip hop. The Paramount Theater features headlining musical tours and productions, while Fox Oakland Theatre draws various musical genres including jam bands, rock, punk, blues, jazz, and reggae. The Oakland City Council has eight council members representing seven districts in Oakland with one member elected at-large and others from single-member districts; council members serve staggered four-year terms. Many immigrants have settled in the city.  By the end of 2017, over 160 bikeway miles and 9,900 bike parking spaces were constructed. The protest was co-organized by SLATE, one of Cal’s few student activist groups at the time. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. The most rainfall in one month was 15.35 inches (390 mm) in January 1911. In 2007, the Oakland Tribune moved its offices from the tower to an East Oakland location, before folding in 2011.. , The Oakland Unified School District (OUSD), which covers the city except for Sheffield Village, operates most of Oakland's public schools.  An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, and incorporation was later approved on March 25, 1854, which officially made Oakland a city. The Tribune Tower, which features a large clock, is an Oakland landmark. October: • Anti-war protest organized and led by Vietnam veterans held in San Francisco. Oakland's black population decreased by nearly 25 percent between 2000 and 2010. Among charter schools in the district, North Oakland Community Charter School (NOCCS), an elementary and middle school, is one of the few public progressive schools in the country. , Oakland is a major West Coast port, and the fifth busiest in the United States by cargo volume. Despite this reduction in habitat, Oakland is home to a number of rare and endangered species, many of which are localized to serpentine soils and bedrock. There are several religious and secular private high schools, including The College Preparatory School, Head-Royce School, Bishop O'Dowd High School, Holy Names High School, St. Elizabeth High School and Oakland Hebrew Day School. ... From its founding in Oakland, the Black Panther Party would spread across the nation and bring with it the will to stand together and fight against oppression.  37.9% of residents over 25 years of age have bachelor's degree or higher. Here's a look at some of the larger protests that have cemented The Town in the history books as a city of defiance, resilience and progress. In 1960, Kaiser Corporation erected its headquarters at the former site of Holy Names University, at the corner of 20th and Harrison Streets.  From 1999 to 2007, the city installed 900 bike racks throughout Oakland, accommodating over 2,000 bicycles. ... and the Oakland Tribune. The Caldecott Tunnel carries Highway 24 through the Berkeley Hills, connecting central Contra Costa County to Oakland. Blacks have formed a plurality in Oakland for many years, peaking in 1980 at about 47% of the population.  This started when a man went hunting in Contra Costa Valley and killed a squirrel. Oaklandnet.com Oakland Higher Education Consortium. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland.. The city of Piedmont, incorporated in Oakland's central foothills after the 1906 earthquake, is a small independent city surrounded by the city of Oakland. Twenty-five people were killed, 150 people were injured, and nearly 4,000 homes destroyed.  The Oakland Roots SC are a soccer team that was formed in 2018. Black Panther Party, African American revolutionary party, founded in 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. Besides the transcontinental line of the Southern Pacific, there was also the Santa Fe (whose Oakland terminal was actually in Emeryville), the Western Pacific Railroad (who built a pier adjacent to the SP's), and the Sacramento Northern Railroad (eventually absorbed by the Western Pacific, which in turn was absorbed by UP in 1983).  Numerous companies in San Francisco continue to expand in or migrate over to Oakland.. The Harlem “Race Riot” (1964) Demonstrators carrying photographs of Lieutenant Thomas Gilligan—who shot and killed a... 2. It's funky, it's thriving. The grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. The Oakland Induction Center was the site of many more protests and arrests into the early 1970s, but the riots of October 1967 remained the bloodiest confrontation. Oakland tops the list of the 50 largest US cities using electricity from renewable sources.. As a result of Loma Prieta, a significant seismic retrofit was performed on the western span of the Bay Bridge. In the East Bay, more than 1,000 demonstrators, many of them families and most carrying signs, marched from the Rockridge BART Station in North Oakland into Berkeley in a protest … , Gertrude Stein wrote about Oakland in her 1937 book Everybody's Autobiography "There is no there there", upon learning that the neighborhood where she lived as a child had been torn down to make way for an industrial park. Free walking tours are offered by the City. Other city officers include: city attorney (elected), city auditor (elected), and city clerk (appointed by city administrator). The Roots began play in 2019 in a new third division professional league called National Independent Soccer Association, however, the team announced that it would move to the second division and play in the USL Championship from the 2021 season onwards.  The Chinese were struggling financially as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, and the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland, many of whom were recruited to work on railroads. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 99,068 persons (25.4%). In November 2019, two homeless mothers and their children moved into a vacant three bedroom house in West Oakland.  The majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they often had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco even though the Chinese were thoroughly inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco.. The committee was formed on May 22, 1965 during a two-day-long protest of the Vietnam War on the Berkeley campus. In 1908 lawyer, former miner and newspaper owner Homer Wood (1880â1976) suggested to his friend Frank Bilger of Blake and Bilger Rock Quarry and Paving Company that he organize a gathering to establish a Rotary Club east of the bay. Member schools include primary user California State University, East Bay as well as Lincoln University, New College of California, Saint Mary's College of California, SFSU Multimedia Studies Program, UC Berkeley Extension, University of Phoenix and Peralta Community College District.. 166,662 people (42.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 215,924 people (55.3%) lived in rental housing units. As of 2015[update] there are 48,181 Kâ12 students; among division-run schools, there are 4,600 plus employees. , Oakland has more than 50 distinct neighborhoods.  The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called Encinar (misrendered at an early date and carried forward as "encinal") âSpanish for "oak grove"âdue to the large oak forest that covered the area, which eventually led to the city's name.  As of 2015[update], the Oakland Unified School District includes 86 division-run schools and 32 charter schools; the district also manages several adult education programs.  Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock, and improving its infrastructure.  Both violent crime and property crime increased during this period, and Oakland's murder rate rose to over twice that of San Francisco and New York.  The number was higher for individual low-income communities, with 96% of Native American households in neighborhoods that either experienced gentrification or were at risk of being gentrified, followed by Latino households at 94%, Black households at 92%, and Asian or Pacific Islander households at 88%. On November 28, 2018, the Athletics announced plans to build a new ballpark at Howard Terminal, set to open in 2023. The racial makeup of Oakland was 134,925 (34.5%) White (non-Hispanic White 25.9%), 129,471 (28.0%) African American, 3,040 (0.8%) Native American, 65,811 (16.8%) Asian (8.7% Chinese, 2.2% Vietnamese, 1.6% Filipino, 0.7% Cambodian, 0.7% Laotian, 0.6% Korean, 0.5% Japanese, 0.5% Indian, 0.1% Mongolian), 2,222 (0.6%) Pacific Islander (0.3% Tongan), 53,378 (13.7%) from other races, and 21,877 (5.6%) from two or more races. Summers are usually dry and warm and winters are mild and damp. Oakland licenses taxi cabs, and has zoned cab stands in its downtown, including a bicycle pedi-cab service. 5 Race Riots of the 1960’s in America 1. Of those, 159,771 (65.2%) are registered Democrats, 9,544 (3.9%) are registered Republicans, and 65,416 (26.7%) have declined to state a political party. On October 20, 1991, a massive firestorm swept down from the Berkeley/Oakland hills above the Caldecott Tunnel.  Its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. , A 2014 study by the Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law & Social Policy at the University of California, Berkeley School of Law examined crime in the city from 1987 to 2012 and concluded that "The story of crime in Oakland over the last 25 years is a nuanced one, as there are both positive and negative aspects of the crime trends. Despite the major increases in the number and proportion of African Americans in the city, in 1966 only 16 of the city's 661 police officers were black. The wettest year was 1940 with 38.65 inches (982 mm) and the driest year was 1910 with 12.02 inches (305 mm).  The city's formerly most populous ethnic group, whites, declined from 95.3% in 1940 to 32.5% by 1990, due to a combination of factors, including suburbanization.  In 2013, Oakland ranked 4th among American cities as an urban destination for nature lovers.. Eddie Rickenbacker and Navy Lt. Bert Acosta.  During the first decade of the 21st century, Oakland has consistently been listed as one of the most dangerous large cities in the United States. , In 2012, Oakland implemented Operation Ceasefire, a gang violence reduction plan used in other cities, based in part on the research and strategies of author David M. 52,103 households (33.9%) were made up of individuals, and 13,778 (9.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. , As of 2013[update], the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward metropolitan area has a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$360.4 billion, ranking eighth among metropolitan areas in the United States. North Oakland encompasses the neighborhoods between downtown and Berkeley and Emeryville. In 1851, three menâHorace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moonâbegan developing what is now downtown Oakland.  By 1920, Oakland was the home of numerous manufacturing industries, including metals, canneries, bakeries, internal combustion engines, automobiles, and shipbuilding. , According to Stanford University historian Albert Camarillo, the Peralta family struggled to keep their land after the incorporation of California into the United States after the MexicanâAmerican War. moves to stem African American exodus", "Melting Pot Cities and Suburbs: Racial and Ethnic Change in Metro America in the 2000s", "Nation Sees Effects of 'Day Without Immigrants, "2000 Census information on Gay and Lesbian Couples, by Incorporated place Incorporated place, by highest percentage", "Gentrification and Disinvestment 2020 Â» NCRC", "Oakland, S.F. Due to financial troubles and administrative failures, it was in receivership by the state of California from 2002 to 2008. 18.1% of the population were of Mexican descent, 1.9% Salvadoran, 1.3% Guatemalan, and 0.7% Puerto Rican. It produced Chevrolet cars and then GMC trucks until 1963, when it was moved to Fremont in southern Alameda County. Camarillo claims the family was the victim of targeted racial violence. The demand for more minority employees in local businesses in the Bay Area was fueled by the huge increase in African Americans in California following World War II.  Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease.  This trends and cultural shifts have led to a decline among some of Oakland's long standing black institutions, such as churches, businesses and nightclubs, which had developed during the growing years of the 1950s through 1970.. In 2012, Oakland was named the top North American city to visit, highlighting its growing number of sophisticated restaurants and bars, top music venues, and increasing nightlife appeal.  The event attracts around 20,000 people along twenty city blocks, featuring live performances, food trucks, and over 30 galleries and venues. He was a part of the Civil Rights movement in the Black Belt South in the 1960s.  As of 2019, Oakland's per-capita homeless rate is higher than San Francisco and Berkeley. In addition, the city participated in large development and urban renewal projects, concentrated especially in the downtown area, at the Port of Oakland, and at the Oakland International Airport.  Oakland is widely regarded as being one of the most liberal major cities in the nation. In 2008, homicides were concentrated: 72% occurred in three City Council districts, District 3 in West Oakland and Districts 6 and 7 in East Oakland, although these districts have 44% of Oakland's residents. David Goll.  Many of the large downtown office buildings, apartment buildings, and single-family houses still standing in Oakland were built during the 1920s; they reflect the architectural styles of the time. East Oakland, which includes the East Oakland Hills, encompasses more than half of Oakland's land area, stretching from Lakeshore Avenue on the east shore of Lake Merritt southeast to the San Leandro border. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis MarÃa Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio. , President Franklin D. Roosevelt called on defense industries with government contracts to integrate their workforces and provide opportunities for all Americans. The National Weather Service today has two official weather stations in Oakland: Oakland International Airport and the Oakland Museum (established 1970). San Andreas quakes induces creep (movement occurring on earthquake faults) in the Hayward fault, which runs directly through Oakland, Berkeley, San Jose and other Bay Area cities. The eastern span of the San FranciscoâOakland Bay Bridge also sustained damage and was closed to traffic for one month.  Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland.  Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Oakland has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate with an average of 260 sunny days per year. Oakland, California, 1916â1938", "Photo collection: 'New or greatly enlarged industrial establishments of Oakland and East Bay cities.'  Oakland ranked among the top cities with residents with bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees per square mile.  Oakland has been experiencing an increase in hotel demand. Municipal garbage collection is franchised to Waste Management, Inc. Telecommunications and subscriber television services are provided by multiple private corporations and other service providers in accordance with the competitive objectives of the Telecommunications Act of 1996.  The Oakland City Council reaffirmed the bike plan in 2005, revised it in 2007, and reaffirmed it in 2012. , Oakland is the second U.S. city, after Denver, to decriminalize psilocybin mushrooms. Catholic schools in Oakland are operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oakland also include eight Kâ8 schools (plus one in Piedmont on the Oakland city border). Oakland's three largest public high schools are Oakland High School, Oakland Technical High School, and Skyline High School. Historically, the city was served by several train companies, which terminated in different terminals. , As of 2020, the San Francisco-Oakland Metro shows indications of having the greatest intensity of gentrification nationally, with over 31% of eligible neighborhoods gentrifying.  In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. Sunny, drier slopes are grassy or covered in scattered oaks and chaparral brush. Until recent waves of gentrification, these terms also symbolized Oakland's deep economic divide, with "the hills" being more affluent communities. The march occurred on November 21, 1965. , In 1980 Oakland's black population reached its 20th-century peak at approximately 47% of the overall city population.. Gentrifying neighborhoods showed significant increases in median home value, median household income, percentage of college educated residents, but also in economic inequality. The 6.9 Mw Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on October 17, 1989. , In 2007 approximately 15.3 percent of families and 17.0 percent of the general population were below the poverty line, including 27.9 percent of those under age 18 and 13.1 percent of those age 65 or over. During that time, the record high temperature was 104 Â°F (40 Â°C) on June 24, 1957, and the record low temperature was 24 Â°F (â4 Â°C) on January 23, 1949. Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG & E) provides natural gas and electricity service. , A 2007 journal article identified crime in Oakland as being fueled by the dramatic increase of street narcotics sales and use since the 1970s, with Oakland becoming a major west-coast hub for heroin and cocaine distribution. The homicide rate is not the same as murder rate. The result from these donations has given teachers from 20 additional Oakland- area schools the ability to participate in an eight-hour professional development workshop, and receive music education instruction from Little Kids Rock. , Students Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party at Merritt College (then located at a former high school on Grove Street, now occupied by Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute), which emphasized black power, advocated armed self-defense against police brutality, and was involved in several incidents that ended in the deaths of police officers and other Black Panther members. Oakland is in the eastern region of the San Francisco Bay. The Cook Partisan Voting Index of Congressional District 13, which includes Oakland and Berkeley, is D+40, making it the most Democratic congressional district in California and the fourth most Democratic district in the US. One old stump 30 feet (9.1 m) in diameter can be seen near Redwood Regional Park. Crime Trends in the City of Oakland: A 25-Year Look (1987â2012). While San Francisco spearheaded the the national counter-culture moment of the late '60s and Berkeley led the country in student protest over the years, Oakland - once referred to by the New York Times as the "last refuge of radical America" - has been the epicenter of protest movements on issues of military desegregation, civil rights, economic inequity, racial injustice, police brutality and beyond. Oakland became a destination for African Americans in the Great Migration during and after World War II as they gained high-paying jobs in the defense industry. The last Republican presidential candidate to receive at least one-third of vote in Oakland was Richard Nixon in 1972.  Oakland's climate is typified by the temperate and seasonal Mediterranean climate. If you're not familiar with the history of protest in the U.S., you might not know that the armed occupation of government buildings hasn't always been just for white guys.  Durant Field was often called Oakland Airport, though the current Oakland International Airport was soon established four miles (6.4 km) to the southwest. , The Port of Oakland was an early innovator/pioneer in the technologies of Intermodal Containerized Shipping. The racial harmony Oakland blacks had been accustomed to prior to the war evaporated. OAKLAND, Calif. - Local community leaders and activists are protesting the death of George Floyd, a black man who died while in police custody in … Oakland is also part of Alameda County, for which the Government of Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, and the Charter of the County of Alameda. In 1991, such an episode allowed the catastrophic Oakland Hills fire to spread and consume many homes. (Bike Plan Update, 2017â18)", "Oakland, California, USA â Discover World", "Linus Bike Commends Oakland After It Is Listed in Top 10 Commuter Bike Cities", "OakDOT Announces Permits for Shared E-Scooters", "Oakland OKs 3,500 rental e-scooters from Bird, Lime, Lyft, Clevr", "What is the definition of sustainability, development and resources", "Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Served by Community Health Centers", Visit Oakland: Oakland Convention and Visitors Bureau, cities with populations exceeding 100,000, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oakland,_California&oldid=1008321510, Incorporated cities and towns in California, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles needing more detailed references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2015, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from February 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2018, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, ÐÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÑÑÐºÐ°Ñ (ÑÐ°ÑÐ°ÑÐºÐµÐ²ÑÑÐ°)â, Srpskohrvatski / ÑÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÐºÐ¸, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The large oak forest that originally covered the area. 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