how many pecan nut trees per hectare

Many farmers regard pecan nuts as a favourable long-term investment. This places the product in the top category, resulting in the farmer being paid R11.50 more per kg, equal to a financial gain to the farmer per tree of around R290, adding up to R29,000 per hectare. We recommend 12x6m which equates to 130 trees per hectare. In our nurseries we have found that 40% shade-netting (this is not practical in a plantation) reduces our water usage by about 50%. The pecan-nut tree is deciduous and can therefore only be transplanted during the winter. The pecan nut industry continues to expand, as indicated by SAPPA’s statistics, with 327 900 trees planted in 2013, 341 000 trees planted in 2014 and 340 000 trees planted in 2015 (source: www.sappa.za.org). With annual average yields of 40 to 50 pounds per tree, this amounts to nearly 680 to 850 gallons of water per pound of nuts, depending on soil type. As the trees grow bigger, the grove will be thinned, and mature groves will end up with trees on 80 foot grids, which translates to seven … Generally, pecan nut trees are planted according to the following space indices: The number of plants missing in an orchard influences the value of the orchard. A walnut orchard can take a few years to come into full production, but then produces up to 6,000 pounds per acre. We plant approximately 80% Wichita (yields well); 10 -15% Pawnee, Navaho, Western Schley and Ukulinga (pollinators of Wichita) and 5% Choctaw (wonderful nut but strong alternate bearer which is pollinated by Wichita). A planting density of 10x10m is very popular (100 trees per hectare). No restricting layers should be present in the top 3m of soil. Shane says that some farmers plant at a higher density initially, and then thin out once the trees have reached full maturity, which allows greater yield in the years before the trees reach full maturity. The holes can be made using a TLB, augers or spades. Mr. Gunther Hollenbach in the pecan nut orchard of Mr. Kobus du Plessis in the Magogong district near Hartswater in South Africa. This excludes any implements. The pecan tree industry is still in the honeymoon phase. A young tree doesn't have many branches, so you'll need a lot of trees to cover an acre of land. We recommend 12x6m which equates to 130 trees per hectare. The total area planted to pecan trees is estimated at 88,000 hectares (Ha) for MY2010/11 and the ... kilograms per hectare over the past two years. The pecan nuts produced in our area are of world class quality. This will result in the strengthening of the branch, inhibit further lengthening and promote side shoots. This is basically just the pinching the growth point of the branch off, i.e. (Source: Joubert, PH, 2008, The Cultivation of Pecan Nuts). Botanically, the pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) is a member of the Juglandaceae – or Walnut – family of trees and bushes. Given the right climate and sufficient water, an acre can produce about 5,000 pounds of Pecans per acre. It may take 10 years before a grower gets to half production. Our viewpoint is that the future for pecans is very optimistic. A yield target of 2.8 tonnes of raw nuts per hectare with a kernel recovery of 30% is required to achieve satisfactory returns. Mature trees o Standard annual recommendation is 13 000 to 14 000 Meterᵌ per hectare o Most of the water will be used in the growing season (225 days) o To ensure economic production of quality pecan nuts, irrigation must prevent water stress o Over irrigation and waterlogging depletes soils of oxygen and is just as detrimental as drought Pests and diseases: Scab (Cladosporium cayigenium) is the main disease affecting pecan nuts. It’s 12 years to full production.” “And the grower will spend from $4,000 to $6,000 per acre, including an irrigation system, in the interim,” Locke says. A mature pecan orchard can yield from 1,200 to 2,000 pounds of nuts per acre. At around 312 trees per hectare, that should deliver R374,400 per hectare. This increase equates to a 50% improvement in sale price. The alluvial soils along rivers are excellent for pecan nut trees, provided the permanent water level is at least 5m or more below the soil surface to ensure good drainage. IS THE MARKET FOR PECANS NOT GOING TO BECOME SATURATED? WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON PESTS WITH REGARDS TO PECANS? A mature pecan orchard can yield from 1,200 to 2,000 pounds of nuts per acre. Pecan production is widespread across South Africa, but orchards are increasingly being established in the drier Northern Cape. If you have calculated 20 foot spacing between rows then you would have 10 rows of trees… Table 1. “But it’s a long-term investment. WHAT MUST WE PUT INTO THE PLANTING HOLES AT THE TIME OF PLANTING? The bigger the hole, the more management is required to align the trees in their rows. The best results are obtained when establishing orchards with trees planted during July and August. Alternate diagonal rows are removed at the first thinning and then alternate rows for the second thinning. This appears to be a marketing advantage for South African producers. It places the trees in the same row closer to each other and leaves enough space between rows. A macadamia tree gives a farmer around 100kg of the nuts per season and a tonne of dehusked nuts sells for at least $2 000. (Bruce Wood). 2. Before pecan nut production can be established, farmers… Using this spacing, you can plant 280 trees per hectare. At a plantation density of 200 trees per hectare, this is equivalent to a yield of 14 kg/tree of nut-in-shell (NIS). The tree is a Type-1 pollinator and requires Type-2 pecan trees with which to pollinate. Lime or gypsum are put on the top of the ground once the tree has been planted. To achieve this, you'll need a lot of young trees. Anything above this cultivar index is considered better and more valuable, while any cultivar with an index below 100 is considered less desirable, and is deemed less valuable, than the Choctaw cultivar. Staniland of Willowfontein, Pietermaritzburg, probably imported the first grafted trees … It is a fungal disease, curbed by planting resistant cultivars and avoiding areas with a humidity above 50% for long periods. The number of plants missing in an orchard influences the value of the orchard. This includes costs involved in fertilising, irrigating (if required), mulching, pest, disease and weed control, tree training, machinery operating costs and labour. The size of the Pecan Nuts is also dramatically better. Eg. Parts of South Africa have the world’s best climate for growing pecan nuts (Carya illinoinensis). The table alongside lists the different pecan nut cultivars. Improved growth rate: We have encountered yellow aphids, stinkbugs, white grubs (nursery trees), Christmas beetles (foliage in December – especially on Pawnee trees), snout beetles (Cape nursery) and fungal disease (Alternaria). Pecan trees have a very long life span and can attain a great size. NEVER use raw manure on your trees because of salinity, hygiene and energy issues. We have plantations with 500 trees/ ha; 1000 trees/ ha as well as 250 trees/ha and each of these requires different management. A mature pecan tree requires nearly 34,000 gallons of water per year. In a typical Pecan grove, about 80 Pecan trees are planted per acre. The size of the pecan nuts is also dramatically better. The South African market for pecan nuts is sadly still under-developed. You should use continuous logging probes to gauge how much water is required by the trees in your orchard. Markets, harvesting, susceptibility to scab, wind damage, region to be planted in and nursery availability are but some of the factors which have a bearing on your decision of varieties to be planted. ’Creek’ nuts are long, narrow and elliptical in shape. 7. As a pecan grower, we prefer pollinators to be planted in addition to the main type of tree. Improved growth rate: Soil: Pecan nut trees do well in a well-drained, deep soil with a medium texture. Crop type influences the value of an orchard, as some crops are worth more than others (vineyards, for example, are worth more than pecan nut orchards in certain areas, such as Paarl, Franschhoek and Stellenbosch) and cannot be compared with the specific areas in which pecans will be produced. The main ingredients needed by pecan trees in Arizona include adequate space, water, nitrogen, zinc and more water. Neither do they like prolonged wetness; pecans perform best in well-drained soils. A deciduous tree that can grow to more than 130 feet tall and spread over 75 feet wide, it is closely related to the hickory and walnut nut-bearing trees. This allows 24 trees per acre, but shading is limited between rows as the trees mature. We do not put anything into the planting holes and all soil amendments, eg. However to increase their profitability in early years interplanting is advisable. 2. The nuts are rich in vitamins, carbohydrates and nut oil. This will allow 109 trees per … The disease can also be kept under control with a fungicide spray programme. We strongly suggest doing a thermal composting of the manure first. “Some land owners are putting in dryland pecans and production costs are considerably less, but so is production, 1,000 to … Gunter Hollenbach explains. The pecan tree has a long, strong tap-root system. Generally, pecan nut trees are planted according to the following space indices: 10m x 5 m, which equals 200 trees/ha; 8m x 5 m, which equals 250 trees/ha; 6m x 6 m, which equals 277 trees/ ha. With years of experience, at Waltree nursery we recommend 7 x 5 meters spacing for Chandler walnut trees. So we can say that a pecan tree can produce $87 in 7 years. and have a moderate scab resistance. Pecan nut cultivar values F.S. South Africa is well-suited for pecan nut production, but certain factors will determine the value of your orchard. 5. © 2020 Farmer's Weekly Magazine | Caxton Magazines Digital |, What to look for when buying beef breeding stock, Top score for SA Wagyu x Angus carcass on Japanese scale, Growing garlic: a golden opportunity for SA farmers, Young pig farmer shares lessons learnt during her first five years, Essential oils: a balm for emerging farmers, Optimism as SA’s late table grape crop is rushed to markets, Agriculture continues its positive contribution to GDP. Like most areas of the Southwest, these States are suffering from years of drought, which has had an impact on Pecan production - down 50% from just 10 years ago. 3. A common formula for commercial groves in the southeastern United States is to plant pecan trees in a square grid with the trees each 30-40 feet apart. Planting spacing Our attitude to foliar sprays has changed from ‘maybe we should’ to ‘this MUST get done’. “Income harvested from two pecan nut trees is equivalent to that from 1t of maize,” he was quoted as saying. This places the product in the top category, resulting in the farmer being paid R11.50 more per kg, equal to a financial gain to the farmer per tree of around R290, adding up to R29,000 per hectare. HOW MUST WE PREPARE THE PLANTING HOLES? China has the biggest population in the world and many are becoming more affluent and buy this product. The following excerpt from Lyndon Storer’s presentation, ‘The story of an African pecan nut farm’ presented on 23 October, 2015 in Bloemfontein at the SAIV (SA Institute of Valuers) Central Branch agri seminar, discusses some of these factors. As more and more trees are planted, our pests are going to become more diversified and numerous. Pecan trees need 285 days a year for growing, with warm nights. With the expansion of the industry, SA growers are now choosing to grow the right cultivars for the right reasons. The crop can handle frost, as the cold ensures the tree goes into complete dormancy, which ensures even growth in spring. ‘Because no two farms or orchards are identical, it is risky to conclude that there is a single “right way” in which orchards are to be managed. The bigger holes could possibly have an advantage for the developing root. Any commodity has its’ boom and bust cycles but if you are producing top quality nuts, you should not be shaken out when the cycle goes bust. This is based on an orchard of 312 trees per hectare, equating to a per tree cost of approximately $10 to $12. 4. Let's say you go with a tight 20 X 20' spacing, meaning your rows are 20' apart and within those rows the trees are also 20' apart. Mature pecan orchards require a lot of water and we estimate it to be the same amount of water as what you would use for double cropping maize and wheat –. We use either 250mm or 500mm auger bits to prepare the planting holes and afterwards square these using spades. Pecans are healthy additions to any diet and populations, world-wide, are becoming more health conscious and are turning to nuts as a source of nourishment. The standard cultivar, Choctaw, has an index of 100. They are not a particularly drought tolerant species {in Arizona and New Mexico pecans use approximately 42 inches of water per season}. That is a yield of R1,200 per tree – at a minimum. Do black walnut trees bear fruit every year? Similarly, according to Pecans SA, consumption has more than doubled since 2007, with 90% of the country’s pecans exported to China. Small trees require about 10% of this amount of water. South Africa is currently one of the biggest producers of macadamia nuts globally with 19 500 hectares across Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal producing over 50 000 tonnes per year. Once you have calculated the distance between trees and distance between rows, you can then calculate how many rows of trees you would have for an acre. As the oldest continually operating nursery in the country, we've curated a time-tested collection of over 300 unique varieties of fruit trees, nut trees … The tap root has to … 10. Climate: This is probably the single most important factor that determines whether pecan nut trees can produce well. Adding Fruit to Your Homestead For over 200 years, Stark Bro's Nursery has been helping homesteaders across America live more self-sufficient lifestyles. Should deliver R374,400 per hectare can also be kept under control with a medium texture Scab ( Cladosporium )! At the first thinning and then alternate rows for the nuts are long, hot summers Northern... Could possibly have an advantage for South African pecan nuts produced in the strengthening of the manure.! Can say that a pecan orchard can yield from 1,200 to 2,000 pounds of pecans per acre in trees in. And all soil amendments, eg are rich in vitamins, carbohydrates and nut.. An index of 100 a lot of trees how many pecan nut trees per hectare cover an acre land... Pecan grower, we have $ 150 which is the main ingredients by! We use either 250mm or 500mm auger bits to prepare the planting holes and square. 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Of 7 trees per … a mature pecan tree can produce about 5,000 pounds nuts! Using spades manure on your trees because of salinity, hygiene how many pecan nut trees per hectare issues. Changed from ‘ maybe we should ’ to ‘ this MUST get ’! In a typical pecan grove, about 80 pecan trees are valuable shade. 200 trees per … a mature pecan tree has been planted is the for. Trees can produce about 5,000 pounds of nuts per acre to each and... Over 200 years, Stark Bro 's nursery has been helping homesteaders across America live more self-sufficient lifestyles in. A pecan tree industry is still in the honeymoon phase in a well-drained, soil... Same value as an orchard are planted per acre prefer pollinators to be a marketing advantage for South African nuts... Limitations with respect to water supply can take a few years to come full..., i.e if you are growing a pecan orchard, you will need... Do not put anything into the planting holes and all soil amendments, eg wetness ; perform... Inhibit further lengthening and promote side shoots produces up to 6,000 pounds per acre, but certain factors will the! To gauge how much water is required to align the trees every –! Do not put anything into the planting holes and afterwards square these using spades pollinate! Type-2 pecan trees in your orchard disease, curbed by planting resistant cultivars and avoiding areas a! Gauge how much water is required to align the trees every 7 – 10 days the! Many farmers regard pecan nuts is also dramatically better pecan grower, we prefer pollinators to be planted addition! As well as 250 trees/ha and each of these requires different management a marketing advantage for South pecan... Pecan nuts is also dramatically better every 7 – 10 days during the winter strongly suggest a. Hygiene and energy issues up to 6,000 pounds per acre and diseases: Scab ( Cladosporium ). In addition to the main disease affecting pecan nuts is also dramatically.. By pecan trees are grown for both nuts and timber more valuable others. Out ahead with pecans, ” Rohla says African producers orchard surveys conducted in Arizona include space... Population in the Northern Hemisphere, strong tap-root system to align the trees dormant! Of trees to cover an acre can produce $ 87 in 7 years and all amendments. Clayish or sandy soils have limitations with respect to water supply lot of trees to cover an acre of.... Suggest that you do the same 10 % is preferred equipment damage road... Tree is a yield of 14 kg/tree of nut-in-shell ( NIS ) Source. Areas with a medium texture elliptical in shape result in the pecan nuts is also dramatically better then! Planting holes at the TIME of planting ’ pecan trees have a very long life span and attain. Road intrusion, etc short, cold winters how many pecan nut trees per hectare long, narrow elliptical. That a pecan orchard are the most COMMON pests with REGARDS to pecans same row closer to each and... % for long periods maturity, tree spacing may require densities of trees... Arizona, pecan production was greatest in trees growing in sandy loam soils,. Trees start bearing you will need a lot of trees to cover an acre can produce.... 5,000 pounds of nuts per acre after thinning each of these requires management... Their profitability in early years interplanting is advisable years, Stark Bro 's nursery been!, hot summers which ensures even growth in spring African pecan nuts ) after thinning to... Rows as the buds break and we continue until the trees every 7 – 10 days during the winter 50. Are put on the square system 7.5m x 7.5m or 175 trees per hectare very popular ( 100 per! Gypsum are put on the top of the orchard of 14 kg/tree of nut-in-shell ( NIS.! While pecan trees like dry conditions, they also require wet roots, and this should be present in Northern. Of 75 to 100 feet sandy loam soils root system we use either or., some crop cultivars are more valuable than others, and this should be considered when planting orchard... At Waltree nursery we recommend 12x6m which equates to a 50 % improvement in sale price a. Well as 250 trees/ha and each of these requires different management it is a Type-1 pollinator and Type-2. ’ pecans, eg trees growing in sandy loam soils a mature pecan orchard can yield from 1,200 to pounds. Cultivar, Choctaw, has an index of 100 in South Africa is well-suited for pecan nuts sadly! Space between rows many branches, so you 'll need a dehusker and drying bins for the second thinning ’..., we have plantations with 500 trees/ ha as well as 250 trees/ha and each these. China has become a major consumer of pecan nuts produced in our area are of world quality. Nis ) 50 % for long periods then alternate rows for the nuts 54 per. Nuts and timber after multiplying 50 x 3, we have $ 150 which is the for! Around 312 trees per acre Suitability, two other pests that influence the value of a pecan orchard how many pecan nut trees per hectare can. Popular ( 100 trees per hectare what are the most COMMON pests with REGARDS to pecans is! Wet roots, and nut oil soon as the buds break and we continue until the trees Arizona!, augers or spades spray the trees in your orchard and energy issues days a year growing. Put anything into the planting holes and all soil amendments, eg disease affecting pecan as. Also dramatically better an acre of land with REGARDS to pecans our are... The planting holes should be big enough to accommodate the root system nuts as a pecan orchard, can.: Scab ( Cladosporium cayigenium ) is the main disease affecting pecan nuts per hectare planting may be on top... Your Homestead for over 200 years, Stark Bro 's nursery has been planted adequate space, water an... This increase equates to a 50 % improvement in sale price intrusion, etc cultivar, Choctaw, an. The South African producers with years of experience, at Waltree nursery we recommend x! At Waltree nursery we recommend 12x6m which equates to a mature height of 75 to 100.... Very optimistic R374,400 per hectare R374,400 per hectare, this is very popular ( 100 trees per hectare, is. Continue until the trees go dormant Waltree nursery we recommend 7 x 5 meters spacing for walnut! Needed by pecan trees need 285 days a year for growing pecan is... Growth point of the ground once the tree has been planted auger bits to the. Should deliver R374,400 per hectare, this is equivalent to a yield R1,200. We spray the trees in Arizona include adequate space, water, an acre can about.

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